HOW BIG IS THE CRYPTOCURRENCY MARKET?
In November, the hottest cryptocurrency, bitcoin, hit an all-time excessive of greater than $68,000, pushing the worth of the crypto market to $3 trillion, in accordance to CoinGecko. That determine was $1.51 trillion on Tuesday.
Bitcoin accounts for almost $600 billion of that worth, adopted by ethereum, with a $285 billion market cap.
Though cryptocurrencies have loved explosive progress, the market remains to be comparatively small.
The U.S. fairness markets, for instance, are price $49 trillion whereas the Securities Trade and Financial Markets Affiliation has pegged the excellent worth of U.S. fastened revenue markets at $52.9 trillion as of the finish of 2021.
WHO OWNS AND TRADES CRYPTOCURRENCIES?
Cryptocurrency began out as a retail phenomenon, however institutional curiosity from exchanges, firms, banks, hedge funds and mutual funds is rising quick.
Whereas knowledge on the proportion of retail versus institutional buyers in the crypto market is tough to come by, Coinbase, the world’s largest cryptocurrency change, stated institutional and retail buyers every accounted for about 50% of the belongings on its platform in the fourth quarter.
Its institutional purchasers traded $1.14 trillion in crypto in 2021, up from simply $120 billion in 2020, Coinbase stated.
Most of the bitcoin and ethereum in circulation is held by a choose few. An October report from the Nationwide Bureau of Financial Analysis (NBER) discovered that 10,000 bitcoin buyers, each people and entities, management about one-third of the bitcoin market, and 1,000 buyers personal roughly 3 million bitcoin tokens.
Roughly 14% of Individuals had been invested in digital belongings as of 2021, in accordance to College of Chicago analysis.
COULD A CRYPTO CRASH HURT THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM?
Whereas the total crypto market is comparatively small, the U.S. Federal Reserve, Treasury Division and the worldwide Financial Stability Board have flagged stablecoins – digital tokens pegged to the worth of conventional belongings – as a potential threat to financial stability.
Stablecoins are principally used to facilitate buying and selling in different digital belongings. They’re backed by belongings that may lose worth or develop into illiquid in occasions of market stress, whereas the guidelines and disclosures surrounding these belongings and buyers’ redemption rights are murky.
That would make stablecoins prone to a lack of investor confidence, significantly in occasions of market stress, regulators have stated.
That occurred on Monday, when TerraUSD, a main stablecoin, broke its 1:1 peg to the greenback and fell as little as $0.67, in accordance to CoinGecko. That transfer partly contributed to bitcoin’s fall.
Though TerraUSD maintains its tie to the greenback by way of an algorithm, investor runs on stablecoins that keep reserves in belongings like money or industrial paper may spill over into the conventional financial system, inflicting stress in these underlying asset courses, say regulators.
With extra firms’ fortunes tied to the efficiency of crypto belongings and conventional financial establishments dabbling extra in the asset class, different dangers are rising, say regulators. In March, for instance, the Performing Comptroller of the Foreign money warned that banks could possibly be tripped up by crypto derivatives and unhedged crypto exposures, given they’re working with little historic value knowledge.
Nonetheless, regulators total are divided on the dimension of the threat a crypto crash poses to the financial system and broader financial system.